Statistical Modeling

Relationship between foot structure (top) and foot function (bottom)

Statistical Modeling

We analyze healthcare data to detect evidence-based patterns, relationships or trends to inform treatment plans and support improved patient outcomes.

As an example, we employed the Generalized Estimation Equations (GEE), to include bilateral data while accounting for potential dependence between limbs, to determine correlations between foot structure and function.

Morgan OJ, Hillstrom HJ, Ellis SJ, Golightly YM, Russell R, Hannan MT, Deland JT 3rd, Hillstrom R. Osteoarthritis in England: Incidence Trends From National Health Service Hospital Episode Statistics. ACR Open Rheumatol. 2019 Oct;1(8):493-498.

Shultz SP, Song J, Kraszewski AP, Hafer JF, Rao S, Backus S, Hillstrom RM, Hillstrom HJ. An Investigation of Structure, Flexibility, and Function Variables that Discriminate Asymptomatic Foot Types. J Appl Biomech. 2017 Jul;33(3):203-210.

Hillstrom HJ, Song J, Kraszewski AP, Hafer JF, Mootanah R, Dufour AB, Chow BS, Deland JT 3rd. Foot type biomechanics part 1: structure and function of the asymptomatic foot. Gait Posture. 2013 Mar;37(3):445-51.

Mootanah R, Song J, Lenhoff MW, Hafer JF, Backus SI, Gagnon D, Deland JT 3rd, Hillstrom HJ. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: are structure and anthropometrics related to function?. Gait Posture. 2013 Mar;37(3):452-6.

Song J, Choe K, Neary M, Zifchock RA, Cameron KL, Trepa M, Hannan MT, Hillstrom H. Comprehensive biomechanical characterization of feet in USMA cadets: Comparison across race, gender, arch flexibility, and foot types. Gait Posture. 2018 Feb;60:175-180.

Rao S, Douglas Gross K, Niu J, Nevitt MC, Lewis CE, Torner JC, Hietpas J, Felson D, Hillstrom HJ. Are Pressure Time Integral and Cumulative Plantar Stress Related to First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Pain? Results From a Community-Based Study. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2016 Sep;68(9):1232-8.

Hafer JF, Lenhoff MW, Song J, Jordan JM, Hannan MT, Hillstrom HJ. Reliability of plantar pressure platforms. Gait Posture. 2013 Jul;38(3):544-8.

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